Immortality: Will all souls live forever, either in heaven or hell?

Immortality: Will all souls live forever, either in heaven or hell? This is a key question. Please take a moment and think about it. What you believe about the nature of the soul will be the lens by which you view the very important question about the fate of unbelievers.

It will affect how you present the good news to an unbeliever. Is immortality inherent or is immortality a gift that only believers receive? This is a question of immense proportions. I cannot stress this enough. The Greeks had one view, the scriptures have another.

  • “Among major schools of Greek thought, only Epicureans denied the soul’s immortality.” (Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary New Testament, Downers Grove, Inter Varsity Press, 1993, p.374)

  • “…’immortality of the soul,’ as normally understood, is not a Biblical doctrine” (The International Bible Commentary, second edition, Grand Rapids, MI, Zondervan Publishing House, 1986, p.60 column 2)

  • “It is a truism that Plato’s teaching has profoundly influenced Christian anthropology.” (Forward by F.F. Bruce, The Fire that Consumes, Edward Fudge.) 

If you believe the souls of unsaved men live forever, then which of these two statements do you believe? There really are only two choices:

  1. Do you believe that God cannot destroy the soul (even if He wanted to). The souls of all men are born indestructible? May I ask, on what basis do you believe this? Do you believe God cannot destroy the soul? Why There are very few things God cannot do and they all have to do with sinful behavior. God cannot be tempted to sin or do wrong. That’s all God cannot do. So why would you believe God cannot destroy the soul, something that He Himself created? Does He lack the power? Does He lack the ability There is absolutely no biblical foundation to the belief that God does not have the ability to destroy the soul.

  1. immortal-soul-devilOr do you believe that God does have the ability to destroy the soul, but chooses not to? If this were true, then why would the specific word “destroy” even come up in the New Testament writings in relation to the unsaved? Why would God use the word “destroy” if He really will not destroy the soul? Is God trying to intentionally deceive us by using words that have a different meaning than what their plain meaning is? Isn’t this a basic rule of hermeneutics? The literal meaning is the first meaning used unless context declares otherwise. Don’t you have to redefine “destroy” in every single one of these instances in order to get something other than “destruction” as the final fate of the unsaved?

  • Matthew 10:28Rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

  • James 4:12There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy.

  • Philippians 3:19Whose end is destruction.

  • 2 Thessalonians 1:9Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction.

  • Hebrews 10:39But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition. (Greek: destruction)

The great Inter-Varsity Press evangelical author, John R. Stott, (who also left the Traditional view) brings up a well-argued point for Conditional Immortality, when he states:

“…it would seem strange…if people who are said to suffer destruction are in fact not destroyed; and…it is difficult to imagine a perpetually inconclusive process of perishing.”

 (J. Stott and D. Edwards, Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1988, p. 316);

Stott is correct. Reread that statement. The word destruction is meaningless if there is not a point where the destruction is complete. In other words, you can’t keep on destroying something for all eternity. It’s a contradiction in terms. Therefore, Conditional Immortality correctly affirms the biblical position that the souls of the lost people will all be destroyed at the end of the age. (Revelation 20:15) This is what the scripture calls the “second death.”

The first death is temporary. In the first death, only the body is destroyed in the graveyard. However, there will be a resurrection one day of all humanity, a bodily resurrection. The second death will never be followed by a resurrection. In the second death, the body and soul are both destroyed (not preserved), (Matthew 10:28) forever.

The second death could not mean eternal torment because it is linked to the first death. The numerical values “first” and “second” show that they are related terms and therefore the deaths must be related too. In the first death, the body stops functioning. In the second death, the body and soul stop functioning forever. They are both destroyed. Yeshua (Jesus) says specifically “both” in Matthew 10:28. Sadly, Traditional theology wrongly states that the soul cannot be destroyed in clear contradiction to the Lord’s word.

Additionally, Jesus did not mention Gehenna (translated as hell) more than at half a dozen occasions (Matt. 5:22,29,30, 10:28, 18:9, 23:15,33, Mark 9:43 and Luke 12:5) and almost all are in the gospel of Matthew. In His day, Gehenna was the Valley of Hinnom just south of Jerusalem. The inhabitants of Jerusalem would just carry their garbage, including dead animals, bones and other waste, outside the south gate of the city (still to this day called “the dung gate”), down the hill and into the “Valley of Hinnom,” into GeHinnom (translated as hell in the New Testament). The waste that was dumped there was then either burned up in the fires that usually burned there, or it rotted away, being eaten by maggots and worms. By the time of Yeshua (Jesus), the Valley of Hinnom had been used for centuries by the inhabitants of Jerusalem as their local garbage dump. Jesus’ audience specifically knew about the valley of Hinnom where the garbage was burned until it was gone, but they would have known nothing about a place where people are burned alive forever in an immortal state.

Scripture clearly states that Adam and Eve lost the chance at immortality in their natural state.

“And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever:” (Genesis 3:22)

If Adam and Eve would have eaten of the tree of life in their sinful state–that would have been a disaster. They would then have immortality (“live forever”) in their sinful state. Therefore, God put a guard there to make sure they would not become immortal in this state.

“So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.” (Genesis 3:24).

It is clear as a bell that God did not want them to live forever as sinners. He specifically stopped it from happening by placing angels and a flaming sword there to block the way. It is only by believing in Yeshua (Jesus) that mankind has another chance at immortality. 

“…and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel…” (2 Timothy 1:10). 

It will be on Resurrection day that believers only will put on immortality.

“…this mortal must put on immortality.” (1 Corinthians 15:53).

Even Traditional Judaism and Bible believers alike all correctly conclude that there will be a bodily resurrection one day. It is called the Tehiyyat ha-Metim = “the resurrection of the dead” and even written in the Traditional Jewish prayer “the Shmona Esre”; and the writer of the book of Hebrews refers to this fact (the resurrection) as “foundational” teachings in Hebrews 6:1-2. However, those who hold to Conditional Immortality know that the lost will not gain immortality on resurrection day, but will be destroyed (cremated) only after suffering for their sins–no more and no less than they specifically deserve.

Evangelical Pastor Al Maxey, who after studying this now believes in Conditional Immortality, writes:

Trees with bad fruit are burned (Matthew 7:19), and so are unfruitful vines (John 15:6) and useless weeds (Matthew 13:40). These figures are all employed to depict the fate of sinners at the final reckoning. They will be cast into “unquenchable fire.” This is the Greek word asbestos which means “inextinguishable.” It describes a fire which burns without interruption; it is an enduring fire which none can extinguish no matter how hard they might try. It is important to notice here, however, that it is the fire that Jesus describes as enduring, NOT that which is cast into it. To try and transfer the quality of endurance from the fire itself to that which is cast into it is completely unwarranted either grammatically, logically, or theologically.

That which is cast into the fire will BURN UP. This is the Greek word katakaio which means “to burn up; consume.” It signifies to completely, utterly, totally destroy with fire. It is enlightening, in the context of this study, to note that this word is used in the LXX (Septuagint) in Exodus 3:2 where Moses beholds a burning bush“The bush was burning with fire, yet the bush was NOT consumed.” This particular bush was preserved in the fire (what the Traditionalists proclaim will happen with the wicked), yet Jesus disagrees with this doctrine. Jesus informs us that sinners will NOT be preserved in the fire (like the burning bush was), but rather will be “burned up”just the opposite of preservation. Thus, the view of final punishment promoted by many is actually in direct opposition to the teaching of Jesus Christ. Jesus says the wicked will NOT be preserved in the fire, the Traditionalists say they WILL. Jesus says they will be consumed in the fire (unlike the burning bush), the Traditionalists say just the opposite (that they will endure without being consumed, just as the bush). Whom will you believe? As for me and my family, we choose to believe JESUS.


Respected Messianic Rabbi, Loren Jacobs also correctly states:

The human soul is not immortal. The Torah teaches us that in the beginning man was banished from the Garden of Eden and forbidden to eat from the Tree of Life, so that he would not live forever, so that he would not be immortal. Mankind is headed toward deaththe first death, followed by the Second Death. He is not, by nature, immortal. In 1 Timothy 6:15 16, Paul says that God alone possesses immortalitynot us. In 1 Corinthians 15:53 the great Rabbi teaches that the redeemed will not become immortal until the time of their resurrection. “For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality.” In other words, immortality is a gift of God which He gives in His grace to the redeemed at the time of their resurrection. In 2 Timothy 1:10, Paul states that because of the appearing of our Savior, Messiah Yeshua, He has abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the Gospel. It is Yeshua who brings immortality to those who receive the Message of Salvation that He alone offers. There is no need to believe that most human beings will suffer eternally in hell if the human soul is not intrinsically immortaland it isn’t. 

Source: What I Believe, What I Reject, Rabbi Loren

Another important point. In John 3:16, the word “perish” in the Greek is “apollumi.” It is correctly translated many other times as “destroy” throughout the New Testament. Therefore, let’s correctly understand John 3:16 as follows:

“For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in Him shall not perish (Gk: apollumi; be destroyed), but have everlasting life (i.e. immortalityknowing God).

Therefore, the proper biblical question is not, “Where will you be in eternity?” but “Will you have an eternity?”

Sadly, most of humanity will be destroyed on Judgment Day. They will not gain immortality. They will not gain life. Jesus states this plainly, “He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal.” John 12:25. It is life itself that we can “keep” or “lose.” As a matter of fact–God choice to us is always “life” or “death”–never “life in bliss” or “life in eternal torment.” He always urges us to “choose life.”

Scripturally, the choice is between destruction (not preservation in torment) and life!
(see Matthew 7:13-14, Romans 8:13, Galatians 6:8)


Immortality is only for a select few-those who are born again (“who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” 2 Timothy 1:10). The rest of humanity, after suffering according to the level of their sins, will be destroyed. The wages of sin for them will be death (Rom 6:23). God only has immortalityanyone else becomes immortal only as a result of God’s gracious gift (1 Timothy 6:16, Romans 2:7).

If you still doubt this, then look at what Jesus Himself clearly offers to the world:

Again, “I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live forever.” John 6:51.

Why would Jesus make such an offerto “live forever”if everyone lives forever? (As I have heard countless preachers say?) No, the truth is “living forever” is reserved only as a gift of the gospel. (“Hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel” 2 Tim 1:10). The wicked will have to pay accordingly on Judgment day, but their final destiny is destruction (not preservation). Apart from the gospel, there is no immortality.

Philippians 3:19 “Their destiny is destruction…”

How can it be any more plain than that? They will be destroyed.

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  1. William D Robinson

    I believed in conditional immortality for years, based on my reading of the Bible, even though I was still attending churches that believed in the traditional view of hell. Eventually, I could not stand this any more, and started to attend a Seventh-Day Adventist Church. But I am still looking for other churches that believe in conditional immortality. Can anyone make a suggestion?

    • Dirk Waren

      Thanks for the comment Bill.

      There are many pastors out there who support literal everlasting destruction — or, at least, are very open to the colossal amount of biblical supportdespite operating under the umbrella of a sect that officially embraces the eternal torture doctrine. It depends on how rigidly sectarian they are.

      So I suggest speaking with the pastor of the local assembly you’re thinking about hooking up with and go from there. Back in the late 90s my wife & I joined a fellowship that supported literal destructionism, but it was an hour & ten minute drive, which gets old fast (although we stayed there for a couple years).

      Another potential issue is that, just because an assembly/sect supports conditional immortality, they could be off or dubious in some other key areas, which isn’t profitable. It’s better to hook up with a fellowship that’s all-around spiritually healthy, even if it tends to support eternal roasting torment, than go to one that technically embraces conditional immortality, but otherwise isn’t very profitable to your spiritual health.

      An additional option is to link to a “church without walls” that supports literal destruction, like Lamb & Lion Ministries.

      My ministry — Fountain of Life — is likewise a “church without walls” reaching the world with the freedom-giving truths of the Scriptures, which your can explore here, if you’re interested.

      Make sure you have the peace of Christ in your heart concerning wherever you go/serve and you’ll be blessed (Colossians 3:15). Amen.

      Your Servant,

  2. Damien

    I have tried to explain at GREATH LENGTH on Facebook to a Christian group that the soul is not immortal. I have supplied every single supporting verse there is to be found in the bible. Yet, I was attacked viciously from all sides.

    Why is it so hard for them to see and understand given all the biblical facts that point to the non-immortality of the soul? They seem to relish in the belief that the wicked will be tormented eternally in Hell for some reason!

    Are these christian people blatantly stubborn, blatantly blind, or blatantly obtuse? I don’t know…

    • Dirk Waren

      Thanks for the comment, Damien. Your question is addressed in this chapter, scroll way down to the section How Could So Many be Wrong for So Long? Here’s the Contents Page for HELL KNOW, if you’re interested, which provides access to all the chapters.

  3. Jeffrey A Potter

    I used to volunteer at a prison ministry and when the new chaplain came and wanted to make sure we were all in alignment with Biblical teaching…I was happy that this was happening….until I saw that they taught that there would be eternal torment in hell for non believers.

    I could not sign my name to the line at the bottom and have offered plenty of scriptural references as to why I cannot subscribe to this theological theory of what happens to the non believer.

    He (the new chaplain) decided that I was on a different path and that until I could prove that I had repented and have documentation that I have led classes and brought people to faith in Christ along with a letter from my pastor or recommendation that I would no longer be allowed to volunteer.

    I feel that God IS the authority and He is able to (and the ONLY One able to be faithful to His word and have integrity)

    Seems as though there are folks that tend to be more comfortable with like minded people that believe as they do.

    And I am by no means trying to point blame at others or lift myself up as more as better than the one in authority…

    I know that my focus should not be completely on what happens to the people that don’t believe and should be on Christ and how He is the head of the body and how the church should function best with Him leading….

    Seems as though as a wife (bride) tends to take advantage of the love the husband) groom has for her…there can be some strife and often we try to be the peace keeper and not say something that would “offend”….as we hear we should love unconditionally as Christ loves the church.

    But here we have God’s word as a record of Who He is and what was done for us while we were yet sinners…yet we don’t read it all? Seems as there is this want to play God and scare people into the “loving arms of God” that created a hell to force their belief out of fear of eternal damnation.

    If there will be a time of no more tears and no more sorrow and satan and his followers and hell itself is destroyed…sounds like a contradiction in how eternity will be.

    I know I don’t have a theological degree and I can only claim that Jesus is my Lord and Savior.

    The only time I have heard God’s call on my life was for prison ministry….sounded audible and I have enjoyed sharing God’s word and giving encouragement to the guys that I can relate with as I also have been behind bars.

    With this door closed and by some people pointing out that it was my own doing and that I should have just followed the status quo and signed the name on the line…

    Have you also had times when differences in theology have you wrestle with scripture only to have man look at you as off course?

    Seems as though we (people in general) like to have some sense of control and yet…we don’t know it all.

    Thank you for your time reading this…

  4. Bruce Sommerville

    You are forgetting one very important aspect of God. He is a perfect being. A perfect being in in balance in ALL aspects. Therefore if God grant eternal life to believers He has to grant eternal damnation to all unbelievers. Just as He loves us unconditionally, He also judges unconditionally. We mere humans keep trying to put God on the same level as us, He most definitely is not on our level. He is sovereign. God is so far above and beyond us we cannot truly comprehend His magnitude. Your article, though well written, is seriously flawed.

    • Dirk Waren

      Thanks for the comment, Bruce. Please allow me to address your points.

      Therefore if God grants eternal life to believers He has to grant eternal damnation to all unbelievers.

      He does grant eternal damnation to unbelievers who reject the gospel. Christ described human damnation as the destruction of “soul and body in hell (Gehenna)” (Matthew 10:28) and Paul described it as “everlasting destruction” (2 Thessalonians 1:9).

      Since, as you point out, only the redeemed are blessed with immortality & eternal life (2 Timothy 1:10 & Romans 2:7), the unredeemed will be literally destroyed, which lasts forever, hence “everlasting destruction.” Remember what the Bible says: “Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God’s wrath remains on them” (John 3:36).

      We mere humans keep trying to put God on the same level as us, He most definitely is not on our level. He is sovereign. God is so far above and beyond us we cannot truly comprehend His magnitude.

      The Scriptures declare that God is perfectly just (Deuteronomy 32:4) and will punish every sinful person that rebels against him according to his/her degree of guilt, as explained in this chapter, scroll down to the the section Conscious Suffering Meted Out as Divine Justice Requires. But God’s morality and justice forbid him from exacting a more extreme punishment than the one he Himself declared — death (Romans 6:23). Job’s friends, Eliphaz and Elihu, rightly argued, “Can a mortal be more just than God? Can a man be more pure than His Maker?” “Far be it from God to do evil, from the Almighty to do wrong” (Job 4:17; 34:10). It is impossible for a mortal human being to be more just or moral than God; yet, which of us — unless utterly debased — would consider torturing even a dog in fire for ten seconds, let alone for all eternity?

      John McKee, a supporter of eternal torture, honestly admits that everlasting suffering is an unpleasant idea, but argues that “we simply do not reject something because our flesh does not like it. On the contrary, what we humanly do not like is what is usually true.” McKee is arguing here that the very reason we should not reject eternal torture is because we instinctively have a strong aversion to it. According to this insane line of reasoning sexual molestation of children would be good because we instinctively consider it repulsive and perverted. Also, McKee is suggesting that it’s our flesh that does not like the notion of eternal torture when in reality it is our God-given sense of morality and justice that has an aversion to it. We all possess this natural sense of morality and justice because we’ve been created in the likeness of God Himself (Genesis 1:27). It is for this reason that spiritually regenerated believers are instructed to “Be imitators of God, therefore, as His beloved children” (Ephesians 5:1). Our God-given instincts and logical reasoning tell us that never-ending torment for temporal disobedience does not make sense; thus every attempt to justify eternal torture falls hopelessly short

      For important details, I encourage you to read HELL KNOW, which covers all the relevant topics and passages. Here’s the Contents Page, which provides access to all the chapters.

      Don’t hesitate to write, brother, if you have any other points or questions. God Bless You!

  5. Grace Receiver

    I totally understand and accept the truth of conditional immortality. My question though, is this: when do the unbelievers receive their few or many stripes? It appears to me that it will be “more tolerable” for certain sins that were committed. If they are all thrown into the Lake of Fire, that seems pretty “even”, which seems to contradict Scripture.

    • Dirk Waren

      You’re mixing up the judgment of believers at the judgment seat of Christ (2 Corinthians 5:10-11), also known as the bema judgment, with that of unbelievers on the day of judgment (Revelation 20:11-15). The judgment seat of Christ is addressed in this chapter of HELL KNOW, just scroll down to The Judgment Seat of Christ (the Judgment of Believers).

      The issue of the day of judgment being “more tolerable” for some unbelievers than others is addressed in this chapter, just scroll down to Conscious Suffering Meted Out as Divine Justice Requires.

  6. John Sears

    I have always accepted the traditional idea of an eternal hell. I sincerely appreciate your thoughts on the topic and you have me thinking. However, what do you do with Luke 16 (Jesus’ story of the rich man and Lazarus)? It seems to contradict the idea of annihilationism. Thanks.

    • Dirk Waren

      Thanks for the feedback and kind words. We have a whole chapter on Jesus’ story of the rich man and beggar, which you can find here.

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